The bibliography on conspiracies is large, much larger than what I refer to here, but it is also obscure. The books come and go, but rarely do they stay in print for very long. The exposés are written by critics of the organizations. Few of them are formally trained historians or social scientists. The exceptions to this rule tend to be Marxists and new left historians. The conventional histories are written by men who probably know about the personal and economic connections that have made possible certain groups' exercise of power, but the authors are careful not to emphasize these connections. They may tell you that a group of men had great influence, but they do not explain why. Above all, they do not follow the money. Isaacson and Thomas's book, The Wise Men, is a representative example. Why were these six men so powerful in foreign policy circles (especially "Chip" Bohlen)? We are not told. The biographies of Eluhu Root, Henry L. Stimson, and John J. McCloy are sometimes large, yet they reveal remarkably little about the personal connections by which these three men wielded power. These three men were the unofficial chairmen of the unofficial American Establishment, each in succession, followed by David Rockefeller, McCloy's "protégé," according to McCloy's biographer. How did they gain their influence? Endless repetitions of the phrase "public service" conceal rather than explain.

When we consider the amount of ink and media time devoted to the Watergate break-in, an event which brought down a President but whose perpetrators' actual motivation was never clearly explained, we should be curious. If all that media coverage and the millions of dollars of government investigative money did not reveal an acceptable answer as to why the break-in occurred, think of the really important political events of history. How can we make sense of them.; How can we discovered what really happened and why it happened.; For example, could the Watergate break-in really have been engineered by John Dean in order to learn whether the Democrats had learned of his new wife's possible connection to a prostitution ring, which is the thesis of Colodny and Gettlin's Silent Coup (St. Martin's, 1991)? If so, then there was less to Watergate than the investigators had imagined, and the fallout from it was remarkable when compared to this information's importance to Richard Nixon.

The Watergate investigation became a media extravaganza that seemed to elevate the reporter's calling to national status. Yet some of the details of the Watergate investigation raise questions that only hard-core conspiracy buffs ever ask. For instance, we all know that Nixon was brought down because of the White House audiotapes. But he refused to give up these tapes in one fell swoop. In fact, not until 1996 were scholars given access to these tapes. Only under specific demands by government prosecutors did Nixon turn over limited sections of those tapes. Gary Allen in 1976 summarized the findings of Susan Huck's February, 1975, article in American Opinion, the publication of the John Birch Society. Allen wrote in The Kissinger File (p. 179):

Consider the fantastic detail involved in the requests. On August 14th, for example, Judge Sirica demanded the "entire segment of tape on the reel identified as 'White House telephone start 5/25/72 (2:00 P.M.) (skipping 8 lines) 6/2:3/72 (2:50 P.M.) (832) complete.'" I don't know what all the identifying numbers mean — but you have to agree that only somebody very familiar with the tapes would know. These boys knew precisely what to look for! Here is another sample request:

January 8, 1973 from 4:05 to 5:34 P.M. (E.O.B.)

a) at approximately 10 minutes and 15 seconds into the conversation, a segment lasting 6 minutes and 31 seconds:

b) at approximately 67 minutes into the conversation, a segment lasting 11 minutes;

c) at approximately 82 minutes and 15 seconds into the conversation, a segment lasting 5 minutes and 31 seconds.

Only Susan Huck asked the obvious question: How did the prosecutors know precisely when these incriminating discussions took place? There are only two possible answers: (1) someone with access to the tapes inside the White House was leaking the information; (2) there was a secret back-up set of the tapes in the hands of someone who was leaking the information. Leaked information would have been illegal for prosecutors to use in court, yet this was how they brought Nixon down.

To my knowledge, no reporter or professional historian has ever bothered to follow up on this remarkable oddity, or even mention it. Nobody ever asked: "What person was in charge of storing those tapes?" It took one of the least known and most diligent conspiracy historians (Ph.D. in geography) even to mention the problem. Strange? Not at all. Normal, in fact. Such is the nature of history and the writing of history whenever the events in question point to the operation of powerful people whose private interests are advanced by what appear to be honorable public activities that cost a lot of money.

Not every exposé is equally reliable in its assessment of the facts. Similarly, not every conventional history is equally innocuous in what it reveals. Even a poorly researched exposé can alert us to things to look up in conventional histories.


Abraham, Larry. Call It Conspiracy. Seattle: Double A Press, 1985.

Abraham, Larry (with Franklin Sanders). The Greening. Atlanta, Georgia: Soundview, 1993.

Allen, Gary. Jimmy Carter; Jimmy Carter. Seal Beach, California: '76 Press, 1976.

Allen, Gary. Kissinger: The Secret Side of the Secretary of State. Seal Beach, California: '76 Press, 1976.

Allen, Gary. Nixon's Palace Guard. Boston: Western Islands, 1971.

Allen, Gary. None Dare Call It Conspiracy. Seal Beach, California: Concord, 1972.

Allen, Gary. Richard Nixon: The Man Behind the Mask. Boston: Western Islands, 1971.

Allen, Gary. The Rockefeller' File. Seal Beach, California: '76 Press, 1976.

Allen, Gary. Say "No" to the New World Order. Seal Beach, California: Concord, 1987.

Bell, Don. How the Barbarians Captured the Beloved Country. Palm Beach, Florida: Don Bell Reports, 1966.

Finder, Joseph. Red Carpet. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1983.

Higham, Charles. Trading With the Enemy: An Exposé of the American Money Plot, 1933-1949. New York: Delacorte, 1983.

Hoar, William. P. Architects of Conspiracy: An Intriguing History. Boston: Western Islands, 1984.

Griffin, G. Edward. The Fearful Master: A Second Look at the United Nations. Boston: Western Islands, 1964.

Groseclose, Elgin. America's Money Machine: The Story of the Federal Reserve. Westport, Connecticut: Arlington House, [1966] 1980.

Josephson, Emanuel M. The "Federal" Reserve Conspiracy and Rockefeller: Their "Gold Corner". New York: Chedney, 1968.

Josephson, Emanuel M. The Truth About Rockefeller: Public Enemy No. 1: Studies in Criminal Psychology. New York: Chedney, 1964.

Kjos, Berit. Brave New Schools. Eugene, Oregon: Harvest House, 1995.

Levinson, Charles. Vodka Cola. London: Gordon & Cremonesi, 1978.

Liggio, Leonard and Martin, James J., eds. Watershed of Empire.' Essays on New Deal Foreign Policy. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles Press, 1976.

Lundberg, Ferdinand. The Rich and the Super-Rich: A Study in the Power of Money Today. New York: Lyle Stuart, 1968.

Lundberg, Ferdinand. The Rockefeller Syndrome. Secaucus, New Jersey: Lyle Stuart, 1975.

Martin, James J. The Saga of Hog Island, And Other Essays in Inconvenient History. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles Press, 1977.

Martin, Rose. Fabian Freeway: High Road to Socialism in the U.S.A. Boston: Western Islands, 1966.

North, Gary. Crossed Fingers: How the Liberals Captured the Presbyterian Church. Tyler, Texas: Institute for Christian Economics, 1996.

Perloff, James. The Shadows of Power: The Council on Foreign Relations and the American Decline. Appleton, Wisconsin: Western Islands, 1988.

Reece Committee, Tax-Exempt Foundations. 83rd Congress, 2d Session, Report No. 2681, Dec. 16, 1954.

Robertson, Pat. The New World Order, Part 2. Dallas: Word, 1991.

Roosevelt, Archibald B. and Dobbs, Zygmund. The Great Deceit: Social Pseudo-Sciences. West Sayville, New York: Veritas Foundation, 1964.

Rothbard, Murray N. The Case Against the Fed. Auburn, Alabama: Mises Institute, 1994.

Rothbard, Murray N. Wall Street, Banks, and American Foreign Policy. Auburn, Alabama: Mises Institute, 1995.

Rushdoony, Rousas J. The Biblical Philosophy of History, Nutley, New Jersey: Presbyterian & Reformed, 1969.

Rushdoony, Rousas J. The Nature of the American System, Chapter VIII: "The Conspiracy View of History." Fairfax, Virginia: Thoburn Press, [1965] 1978.

Sargent, Porter. Getting US into War. Boston: Porter Sargent, 1941.

Scott, Otto. The Other End of the Lifeboat, Part 1. Chicago: Regnery, 1985.

Scott, Otto. The Secret Six: John Brown and the Abolitionist Movement. New York: Times Books, 1979. Reprinted by Uncommon Books, P. O. Box 69006, Seattle, Washington, 98168.

Sklar, Holly, ed. Trilateralism: The Trilateral Commission and Elite Planning for World Management. Boston: South End Press, 1980.

Skousen, W. Cleon. The Naked Capitalist. Salt Lake City: Privately Published, 1970.

Smoot, Dan. The Invisible Government. Dallas: Dan Smoot Report, 1962.

Stang, Alan. The Actor: 7he True Story of John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State, 1953-1959. Boston: Western Islands, 1968.

Sutton, Antony. America's Secret Establishment: An Introduction to the Order of Skull & Bones. Billings, Montana: Liberty House, 1986.

Sutton, Antony. The Best Enemy Money Can Buy. Billings, Montana: Liberty House, 1986.

Sutton, Antony. Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution. New Rochelle, New York: Arlington House, 1974.

Sutton, Antony. Wall Street and FDR. New Rochelle, New York: Arlington House, 1975.

Sutton, Antony. Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler. Seal Beach, California: '76 Press, 1976.

Sutton, Antony and Wood, Patrick. Trilaterals Over Washington. 2 vols. Scottsdale, Arizona: August Corp., 1978, 1981

Tarpley, Webster Griffin and Chaitkin, Anton. George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography. Washington, D.C.: Executive Intelligence Review, 1992.

van der Pijl, Kees. The Making of an Atlantic Ruling Class. London: Verso, 1984.

Webster, Nesta. The French Revolution: A Study in Democracy. 3rd edition; London: Constable, 1923.

Wormser, Rend. Foundations: Their Power' and Influence. New York: Devin-Adair, 1958.

Conventional Histories

Abramson, Rudy. Spanning the Century: The Life of W. Averell Harriman, 1891-1986. New York: William Morrow, 1992.

Aldrich, Nelson W. Old Money.' The Mythology of America's Ruling Class. New York: Knopf, 1988.

Attali, Jacques. A Man of Influence: 7'he Extraordinary Career of S. G. Warburg. Bethesda, Maryland: Adler & Adler, 1987.

Barnet, Richard J. The Alliance: America-Europe-Japan: Makers of the Postwar World. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983.

Billington, James. Fire in the Minds of Men: Origins of the Revolutionary Faith. New York: Basic Books, 1980.

Bird, Kai. The Chairman: John J. McCloy: The Making of the American Establishment. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.

Burch, Philip. H. Elites in American History. 3 vols. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1980.

Callahan, David. Dangerous Capabilities: Paul Nitze and the Cold War. New York: Edward Burlingame Book (HarperCollinsPublishers), 1990.

Chandler, Lester V. Benjamin Strong: Central Banker. New York: Arno Press, [1958] 1979.

Chernow, Ron. The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1990.

Collier, Peter and Horowitz, David. The Rockefellers: An American Dynasty. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1976.

Current, Richard N. Secretary Stimson: A Study in Statecraft. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1954.

Deacon, Richard. The Cambridge Apostles: A history of Cambridge University's élite intellectual secret society. London: Robert Royce, 1985.

Domhoff, G. William. Who Rules America Now?: A View for the '80s. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1983.

Duchene, Francois. Jean Monnet: The First Statesman of Interdependence. New York: Norton, 1994.

Fisher, Don. Fundamental Development of the Social Sciences: Rockefeller Philanthropy and the United States Social Science Research Council. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1993.

Fosdick, Raymond B. John D. Rockefeller; Jr, A Portrait. New York: Harper & Bros., 1956.

Funigello, Philip J. American-Soviet Trade in the Cold War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Harr, John Ensor and Johnson, Peter J. The Rockefeller Century. New York: Scribner's, 1988.

Heald, Tim. Old Boy Networks: Who We Know and How We Use Them. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1984.

Hiebert, Ray Eldon. Courtier to the Crowd: The Story of Ivy Lee and the Development of Public Relations. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1966.

Hodgson, Godfrey. The Colonel: 7he Life and Wars of Henry Stimson, 1867-1950. New York: Knopf, 1990.

Isaacson, Walter and Thomas, Evan. The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made: Acheson, Bohlen, Harriman, Kennan, Lovett, McCloy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986.

Jessup, Philip C. Elihu Root. 2 vols. Archon Books, [1938] 1964.

Johnson, George. Architects of Fear: Conspiracy Theories and Paranoia in American Politics. Los Angeles: Tarcher, 1983.

Kolko, Gabriel. The Triumph of Conservatism: A Reinterpretation of American History, 1900-1916. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1963.

Lamont, Thomas W. Henry P Davison: The Record of a Useful Life. New York: Harper & Bros., 1933.

Lisagor, Nancy and Lipsius, Frank. A Law Unto Itself.' The Untold Story of the Law Firm of Sullivan & Cromwell. New York: William Morrow, 1988.

Marlowe, John. Milner': Apostle of Empire. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1976.

McCartney, Laton. Friends in High Places: The Bechtel Story: The Most Secret Corporation and How It Engineered the World. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988.

Miller, Arthur S. The Secret Constitution and the Need for Constitutional Change. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1987.

Pussey, Merlo J. Eugene Meyer. New York: Knopf, 1974.

Quigley, Carroll. The Anglo-American Establishment. New York: Books in Focus, 1981. Reprinted by GSC & Associates, P. O. Box 6448-Eastview Station, San Pedro, California 90734.

Quigley, Carroll. Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time, pp. 936-56. New York: Macmillan, 1966. Reprinted by GSC & Associates, P. O. Box 6448-Eastview Station, San Pedro, California 90734.

Steel, Ronald. Walter' Lippmann and the American Century. New York: Vintage, 1981.

Stephenson, Nathaniel Wright. Nelson W. Aldrich: A Leader' in American Politics. New York: Kennikat, [1930] 1971.

Wells, H. G. The Open Conspiracy: Blue Prints for a World Revolution. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1928.

Primary Sources

The Freemen Digest, Salt Lake City, published a remarkable series of magazine-length reports in 1978 and 1979. The researcher gained the cooperation of many Insider organizations, which shared their documents with him and agreed to their publication without editorial comment. I am informed by Cleon Skousen, the publisher, that the Council on Foreign Relations was so pleased with its report that it ordered thousands of extra copies to be placed in libraries around the world. Unfortunately, the project ended prior to the researcher's release of the materials on that most important of all international organizations, the Bank for International Settlements, which had supplied him with reams of material. The published reports included:

Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies (1979)
Atlantic Institute for International Affairs (1979)
Bilderberg Meetings (1978)
Council on Foreign Relations (1979)
European Economic Community (1979)
Fabian Society (1979)
Institutes for International Affairs (1979)
Trilateral Commission (1979)
Trilateralism (1979)